Under each High Court, there are several Lower courts. These are referred to in the Constitution as ‘Subordinate Courts’ these courts are subordinate to and under the control of the High Court. The States are divided into districts for administrative purposes. There are several types of courts in each district.
Types of Lower Courts
The court of District Judge is the highest civil court in the district. It can try civil cases as well as hear appeals against the judgments of the Lower Courts. Additional judges can be appointed to assist the District Judge. Subordinates judges and Munsifs try civil cases that concern lesser amounts in the Lower Courts.
The Sessions Judge presides over the highest court for criminal cases in this district. The district judge also acts in this capacity. Magistrates too can try criminal cases in the Lower Courts. District Courts also hear appeals against the decisions of the lower civil and criminal courts. Appeals against the decisions of the District Courts are heard by the High Court, as mentioned earlier.
Matters regarding payment of revenue are heard in the Revenue Courts. The Board of Revenue is the highest authority in a State. The court of the Commissioner of Revenue who is also Divisional Commissioner comes next in the structure. The court of the collector or Deputy Commissioner is under that. The courts of the Tehsildar and Naib Tehsildar are below all of these.
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