Election Process In India: Electoral Politics - Class 9

The framers of the Constitution were well aware of the importance of free and fair elections in a democracy. The Constitution as such provides for an election commission not answerable to the executive.


The chief election commissioner is appointed by the President and is assisted by a number of other Election commissioners. The independence of the Commission is ensured by providing that the Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through a process of impeachment as prescribed in the case of Judges of the Supreme Court.


The Election Commission functions with the help of the staff of the Central and State governments. When deployed on election duty, these officers and officials of central and state governments are deemed to be on deputation to the commission. The commission is assisted by Chief Electoral Officers who assist in the preparation and revision of electoral rolls.


The election Commission notifies the dates on which the nominations have to be filed. The nominations can be withdrawn by a date announced along with the notification for filing nominations. The nomination papers are scrutinized by the Returning Officers. After deleting the names of candidates who have withdrawn a final list of contesting candidates who have been declared by the Returning Officer.


The next step is the preparation of ballot papers containing the names of all the candidates contesting from a specific constituency. Their names along with the election symbol allotted to them are shown on the ballot paper. The ballot paper has an empty space against the name of every candidate where the voter stamps his/her choice.


The process is now being conducted through electronic voting machines. All that the voter has to do is to press the button against the name of the candidate of his/her choice. The vote is registered on the machine secretly.




The political parties and the candidates start canvassing after the names of contesting candidates have been finally declared. Canvassing is done through public meetings, press insertions, and door-to-door visits by the candidates accompanied by his party men. Canvassing stops 3 days before the date of the poll.




Each registered voter is assigned a polling booth where he or she can cast his vote. On the date of the election, the voters queue up at the polling booth assigned to them. As the voter enters the hall, his/her name is called. The polling agents of the various candidates seated in the hall can challenge the identity of the voter.


If there is no challenge the voter gets a ballot after an indelible mark has been put on his finger. The voter then goes behind the screen and stamps the ballot or presses the button in case the poll is being conducted electronically. The polling goes on till the scheduled time. Thereafter the ballots/ machines are deposited at the counting center.


The counting is done in the presence of the agents of the candidates. The candidates securing the highest votes are declared elected by the returning officer at the conclusion of the counting. The process has been considerably hastened by the use of electronic machines.

Read More: First Past the Post System Of Elections: Electoral Politics - Class 9

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